16.7 Case Study Conclusion: Drink and Flush
Created by CK-12 Foundation/Adapted by Christine Miller
Case Study Conclusion: Drink and Flush
You are probably aware that, because of its effects on the brain, drinking alcohol can cause visual disturbances, slurred speech, drowsiness, impaired judgment, and loss of coordination. Although it may be less obvious, alcohol also can have serious effects on the functioning of the excretory system.
As you learned from the conversation between Talia and Shae — who were in line for the restroom at the beginning of this chapter — alcohol consumption inhibits a hormone that causes our bodies to retain water. As a result, more water is released in urine, increasing the frequency of restroom trips, as well as the risk of dehydration.
Which hormone discussed in this chapter does this? If you answered (ADH; also called vasopressin) — you are correct! ADH is secreted by the posterior and acts on the . As you have learned, the kidneys filter the blood, reabsorb needed substances, and produce . ADH helps the body conserve water by influencing this process. ADH makes the collecting ducts in the kidneys permeable to water, allowing water molecules to be reabsorbed from the urine back into the blood through osmosis into capillaries.
Alcohol is thought to produce more dilute urine by inhibiting the release of ADH. This causes the to be more impermeable to water, so less water can be reabsorbed, and more is excreted in urine. Because the volume of urine is increased, the bladder fills up more quickly, and the urge to urinate occurs more frequently. This is part of the reason why you often see a long line for the restroom in situations where many people are drinking alcohol. In addition to producing more dilute urine, simply consuming many beverages can also increase urine output.
In most cases, moderate drinking causes only a minor and temporary effect on kidney function. However, when people consume a large quantity of alcohol in a short period of time, or abuse alcohol over long time periods, there can be serious effects on the kidney. Binge drinking (consuming roughly four to five drinks in two hours) can cause a condition called “acute kidney injury,” a serious and sudden impairment of kidney function that requires immediate medical attention. As with the other cases of kidney failure that you learned about in this chapter, the treatment is to artificially filter the blood using . While normal kidney function may eventually return, acute kidney injury can sometimes cause long-term damage to the kidneys.
In cases where people abuse alcohol, particularly for an extended period of time, there can be many serious effects on the kidneys and other parts of the excretory system. The dehydrating effect of alcohol on the body can impair the function of many organs, including the kidneys themselves. Additionally, because of alcohol’s effect on kidney function, water balance, and ion balance, chronic alcohol consumption can cause abnormalities in blood ion concentration and acid-base balance, which can be very dangerous.
Drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day can increase your risk for high blood pressure, too. As you have learned, high blood pressure is a risk factor for some kidney disorders, as well as a common cause of . Drinking too much alcohol can damage the kidneys by raising blood pressure.
Finally, chronic excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver disease. The liver is an important organ of the that breaks down toxic substances in the blood. The liver and kidneys work together to remove wastes from the bloodstream. You may remember, for example, the liver transforms into , which is then filtered and excreted by the kidneys. When the liver is not functioning normally, it puts added strain on the kidneys, which can result in kidney dysfunction. This association between alcohol, liver disease, and kidney dysfunction is so strong that most of the patients in Canada with both liver disease and related kidney dysfunction are alcoholics.
As you have learned, the excretory system is essential in removing toxic wastes from the body and regulating homeostasis. Having an occasional drink can temporarily alter these functions, but excessive alcohol exposure can seriously and permanently damage this system in many ways. Limiting alcohol consumption can help preserve the normal functioning of the excretory system, so that it can protect your health.
Chapter 16 Summary
In this chapter you learned about the excretory system. Specifically, you learned that:
- is the process of removing wastes and excess water from the body. It is an essential process in all living things, and a major way in which the human body maintains .
- Organs of the excretory system include the skin, liver, large intestine, lungs, and kidneys.
- The plays a role in excretion through the production of by sweat glands. Sweating eliminates excess water and salts, as well as a small amount of , a byproduct of protein .
- The is a very important organ of excretion. The liver breaks down many substances — including toxins — in the blood. The liver also excretes (a waste product of hemoglobin catabolism) in bile. then travels to the small intestine and is eventually excreted in by the large intestine.
- The main excretory function of the is to eliminate solid waste that remains after food is digested and water is extracted from the indigestible matter. The large intestine also collects and excretes wastes from throughout the body.
- The are responsible for the excretion of gaseous wastes — primarily carbon dioxide — from in cells throughout the body. Exhaled air also contains water vapor and trace levels of some other waste gases.
- The paired are often considered the main organs of excretion. Their primary function is the elimination of excess water and wastes from the bloodstream by the production of . The kidneys filter many substances out of blood, allow the blood to reabsorb needed materials, and use the remaining materials to form urine.
- The two bean-shaped kidneys are located high in the back of the abdominal cavity on either side of the spine. A renal artery connects each kidney with the aorta, and transports unfiltered blood to the kidney. A renal vein connects each kidney with the inferior vena cava and transports filtered blood back to the circulation.
- The kidney has two main layers involved in the filtration of blood and formation of urine: the outer cortex and inner medulla. At least a million — which are the tiny functional units of the kidney — span the and . The entire kidney is surrounded by a fibrous capsule and protective fat layers.
- As blood flows through a nephron, many materials are filtered out of the blood, needed materials are returned to the blood, and the remaining materials are used to form urine.
- In each nephron, the and the surrounding form the unit that filters blood. From the glomerular capsule, the material filtered from blood (called filtrate) passes through the long . As it does, some substances are reabsorbed into the blood, and other substances are secreted from the blood into the filtrate, finally forming urine. The urine empties into collecting ducts, where more water may be reabsorbed.
- The kidneys are part of the urinary system, which also includes the , , and . The main function of the urinary system is to eliminate the waste products of metabolism from the body by forming and excreting urine. After urine forms in the kidneys, it is transported through the ureters to the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until urination, when urine is transported by the urethra to be excreted outside the body.
- Besides the elimination of waste products such as urea, uric acid, excess water, and mineral ions, the urinary system has other vital functions. These include maintaining of mineral ions in extracellular fluid, regulating acid-base balance in the blood, regulating the volume of extracellular fluids, and controlling blood pressure.
- The formation of urine must be closely regulated to maintain body-wide homeostasis. Several endocrine hormones help control this function of the urinary system, including secreted from the posterior pituitary gland, from the parathyroid glands, and from the adrenal glands.
- For example, the kidneys are part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that regulates the concentration of sodium in the blood to control blood pressure. In this system, the enzyme renin secreted by the kidneys works with hormones from the liver and adrenal gland to stimulate nephrons to reabsorb more sodium and water from urine.
- The kidneys also secrete endocrine hormones, including — which helps control the level of calcium in the blood — and , which stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
- The process of urination is controlled by both the autonomic and the somatic nervous systems. The causes the detrusor muscle in the bladder wall to relax as the bladder fills with urine, but conscious contraction of the detrusor muscle expels urine from the bladder during urination.
- Ureters are tube-like structures that connect the kidneys with the urinary bladder. Each ureter arises at the of a kidney and travels down through the abdomen to the urinary bladder. The walls of the ureter contain that can contract to push urine through the ureter by . The walls are lined with transitional epithelium that can expand and stretch.
- The urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that rests on the pelvic floor. It is also lined with transitional epithelium. The function of the bladder is to collect and store urine from the kidneys before the urine is eliminated through urination. Filling of the bladder triggers the autonomic nervous system to stimulate the detrusor muscle in the bladder wall to contract. This forces urine out of the bladder and into the urethra.
- The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice. Somatic nerves control the at the distal end of the urethra. This allows the opening of the sphincter for urination to be under voluntary control.
- is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the glomeruli of the kidneys due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Years of capillary damage may occur before symptoms first appear.
- (PKD) is a genetic disorder (autosomal dominant or recessive) in which multiple abnormal cysts grow in the kidneys.
- Diabetic nephropathy, PKD, or chronic hypertension may lead to kidney failure, in which the kidneys are no longer able to adequately filter metabolic wastes from the blood. Kidneys may fail to such a degree that kidney transplantation or repeated, frequent is needed to support life. In hemodialysis, the patient’s blood is filtered artificially through a machine and then returned to the patient’s circulation.
- A kidney stone is a solid crystal that forms in a kidney from minerals in urine. A small stone may pass undetected through the ureters and the rest of the urinary tract. A larger stone may cause pain when it passes or be too large to pass, causing blockage of a ureter. Large kidney stones may be shattered with high-intensity ultrasound into pieces small enough to pass through the urinary tract, or they may be removed surgically.
- A bladder infection is generally caused by bacteria that reach the bladder from the GI tract and multiply. Bladder infections are much more common in females than males because the female urethra is much shorter and closer to the anus. Treatment generally includes antibiotic drugs.
- Urinary incontinence is a chronic problem of uncontrolled leakage of urine. It is very common, especially at older ages and in women. In men, urinary incontinence is usually caused by an enlarged prostate gland. In women, it is usually caused by stretching of pelvic floor muscles during childbirth (stress incontinence) or by an “overactive bladder” that empties without warning (urge incontinence).
You have learned that, through the removal of toxic wastes and the maintenance of homeostasis, the excretory system protects your body. But how does your body protect itself against pathogens and other threats? Read the next chapter on the immune system to find out.
Chapter 16 Review
- In what ways can the alveoli of the lungs be considered analogous to the nephrons of the kidney?
- What is urea? Where is urea produced, and what is it produced from? How is urea excreted from the body?
- If a person has a large kidney stone preventing urine that has left the kidney from reaching the bladder, where do you think this kidney stone is located? Explain your answer.
- As it relates to urine production, explain what is meant by “Excretion = Filtration – Reabsorption + Secretion.”
- Which disease discussed in the chapter specifically affects the glomerular capillaries of the kidneys? Where are the glomerular capillaries located within the kidneys, and what is their function?
- Describe one way in which the excretory system helps maintain homeostasis in the body.
- High blood pressure can both contribute to the development of kidney disorders and be a symptom of kidney disorders. What is a kidney disorder that can be caused by high blood pressure? What is a kidney disorder that has high blood pressure as a symptom? How does blood pressure generally relate to the function of the kidney?
- If the body is dehydrated, what do the kidneys do? What does this do to the appearance of the urine produced?
- Identify three risk factors for the development of kidney stones.
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A hormone made by the hypothalamus in the brain and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It tells your kidneys how much water to conserve. ADH constantly regulates and balances the amount of water in your blood. Higher water concentration increases the volume and pressure of your blood.
The master gland of the endocrine system that secretes many hormones, the majority of which regulate other endocrine glands.
One of a pair of organs of the excretory and urinary systems that filters wastes and excess water out of blood and forms urine.
A liquid waste product of the body that is formed by the kidneys and excreted by the other organs of the urinary system.
One of a network of ducts in a kidney where additional water may be reabsorbed from urine.
A medical procedure for patients with kidney failure in which wastes and excess water are artificially filtered out of blood by passing it through a machine.
The loss of the ability of nephrons in the kidney to function fully due to a progressive kidney disease such as diabetic nephropathy or polycystic kidney disease.
The body system responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis. There are several parts of the body that are involved in this process, such as sweat glands, the liver, the lungs and the kidney system. ... From there, urine is expelled through the urethra and out of the body.
A compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a common nitrogenous waste produced by the breakdown of amino acids in various cells in the body.
Waste product of protein catabolism that is mainly filtered from blood in the kidneys and excreted in urine.
The process of removing wastes and excess water from the body.
The ability of an organism to maintain constant internal conditions despite external changes.
The major organ of the integumentary system that covers and protects the body and helps maintain homeostasis, for example, by regulating body temperature.
Salty fluid secreted into ducts by sweat glands in the dermis that excretes wastes and helps cool the body; also called perspiration.
The breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones.
An organ of digestion and excretion that secretes bile for lipid digestion and breaks down excess amino acids and toxins in the blood.
A brown pigment secreted into bile by the liver that is a byproduct of catabolism of dead red blood cells and is excreted in feces by the large intestine.
Fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder that is secreted into the small intestine to help digest lipids and neutralize acid from the stomach.
Solid waste that remains after food is digested and that is eliminated from the body through the anus.
An organ of the digestive system that removes water and salts from food waste and forms solid feces for elimination.
Two paired organs of the respiratory system in which gas exchange takes place between the blood and the atmosphere.
A set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
One of the million tiny structural and functional units of the kidney that filters blood and forms urine.
The outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.
The innermost part of the kidney. The renal medulla is split up into a number of sections, known as the renal pyramids.
A network of capillaries in the nephron of a kidney where substances are filtered out of the blood.
A structure surrounding the glomerulus of a nephron in a kidney, also known as the Bowman's capsule, into which substances that are filtered out of blood are passed to the renal tubule.
A tubular structure of a nephron in a kidney through which filtered substances pass and where some filtered substances are reabsorbed by the blood and additional substances are secreted from the blood.
A muscular, tube-like organ of the urinary system that moves urine by peristalsis from a kidney to the bladder.
A sac-like organ that stores urine until it is excreted from the body.
A tube-like organ of the urinary system that carries urine out of the body from the bladder and, in males, also carries semen out of the body.
A hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland which helps regulate blood calcium.
The main mineralocorticoid hormone which is responsible for sodium conservation in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon.
The active form of vitamin D, normally made in the kidney. A manufactured form is used to treat kidney disease with low blood calcium, hyperparathyroidism due to kidney disease, low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and familial hypophosphatemia.
A hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues.
division of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary activities
The funnel-like end of a ureter where it enters the kidney and where urine collects before it is transported through the ureter.
An involuntary, nonstriated muscle that is found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach.
A distinctive pattern of smooth muscle contractions that propels foodstuffs distally through the esophagus and intestines.
A ring of muscles that can contract to close off an opening between structures, such as between the esophagus and stomach.
A progressive kidney disease caused by damage to capillaries in the glomeruli of the kidneys due to poor blood sugar control in people with diabetes.
A genetic disorder in which multiple abnormal cysts develop and grow in the kidneys.